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Process Engineering

Continuous Distillation Column Unit

Model No: BP80-50

Description:

This Continuous Distillation Column Unit is designed to demonstrate the principles and operation of continuous distillation also.

This unit consists of:

  • Bubble cap tray column
  • Packed column (Optional)
  • Feed and distillate vessels
  • Feed pump
  • Reboiler
  • Reflux divider
  • Phase separator (Optional)

Experimental capabilities:

  • Operation of batch and continuous distillation
  • Effect of reflux ratio, feed flow rate, temperature, composition and feed position on product purity
  • Effect of column loading on column efficiency
  • Determination of number of theoretical plates using the Mc-Cabe-Thiele diagram
  • Comparison on the performance between tray column and packed column (Optional)
  • Azeotropic distillation (Optional)

Corrosion Study Kits

Model No: BP01

Description:

This Corrosion Study Kits is designed to demonstrate the science of corrosion in industrial processes.

This unit consists of:

  • Eight test cells made of glass with specially machined lids enabling sample to be mounted
  • Test specimen pieces of steel, zinc, brass and copper
  • Air pump
  • pH meter and electrode
  • Low voltage supply

Experimental capabilities:

  • Effect of pH and DO concentration on corrosion rate
  • Study of galvanic action, cathodic protection, electrolytic corrosion and chemical inhibition

Crystallisation Unit

Model No: BP123

Description:

This Crystallisation Unit is designed to demonstrate basic principles of crystallization and operations of a crystallizer.

This unit consists of:

  • Feed and product vessels
  • Crystallization pump and vessel
  • Heat exchanger
  • Distillate condenser
  • Heating/Cooling systems
  • Condensate vessel

Experimental capabilities:

  • Demonstration of crystallization processes using evaporation, surface cooling, vacuum cooling (optional) and reaction methods
  • Study of solubility curves and phase diagrams for crystallization
  • Observation of formation of crystals, nucleation and crystal growth
  • Effects of circulation and feed flow rates on crystallization rates
  • Effects of temperature, reaction and pressure (optional) on crystallization rates

Double Effect Evaporator

Model No: BP70

Description:

This Double Effect Evaporator is designed to provide students with practical knowledge of evaporation process. Operations of single or double effect climbing film evaporator will be demonstrated.

This unit consists of:

  • Evaporator columns
  • Vertical tube with heating jacket
  • Cyclone separator
  • Distillate cooler
  • Concentrate and distillate receiver

Experimental capabilities:

  • Operation of a single or double effect climbing film evaporator
  • Effect of parallel, forward or backward feed sequence
  • Effect of feed flow rate, evaporator temperature and pressure on evaporation rate and concentration levels
  • Determination of capacity, sensible and evaporative heat loads of evaporator
  • Mass and energy balance calculations

Falling Film Absorption Unit

Model No: BP02

Description:

This Falling Film Absorption Unit is designed for experiments on liquid film controlled gas-liquid absorption process.

This unit consists of:

  • Wetted wall column made of glass
  • Deoxygenating column filled with glass packings
  • Water tank and feed pumps
  • Air compressor
  • Dissolved oxygen analysers
  • Gas and liquid flow meters

Experimental capabilities:

  • Calculation of liquid film mass transfer coefficients
  • Determination of coefficient values in power law relationship

Fixed and Fluidised Bed Unit

Model No: BP23

Description:

The Fixed and Fluidised Bed Unit is designed to study the behaviour of flow of fluid through both fixed and fluidised bed of solid particles. Differences in flow behaviour can be visualized clearly.

This unit consists of:

  • Columns
  • Water supply
  • Air supply
  • Bed materials

Experimental capabilities:

  • Determination of pressure drop through fixed and fluidised bed for both air and water systems
  • Verification of the Carman-Kozeny equation
  • Observation of the differences between particulate and aggregative fluidisation
  • Behaviour of fluidised bed for various types of bed material

Gas Absorption Unit

Model No: BP50-80

Description:

This Gas Absorption Unit is designed to provide students with a hands-on experience on gas absorption by means of liquids (solvent absorption).

This unit consists of:

  • Absorption packed column
  • Sump tank
  • Feed pump
  • Instrumentations for measurement of air, liquid and gas flow rates and column pressure drop

Experimental capabilities:

  • Absorption of CO2 from air-CO2 mixtures using sodium hydroxide solution
  • Determination of CO2 saturation point in NaOH solution and time to reach saturation
  • Effect of CO2 compositions, air and liquid flow rates on absorption efficiency
  • Hydrodynamics of a packed column
  • Determination of loading and flooding points of the column

Gas Absorption-Desorption Unit

Model No: BP51-80

Description:

This Gas Absorption-Desorption Unit is designed to provide students with a hands-on experience on gas absorption and desorption.

This unit consists of:

  • Absorption and desorption columns
  • Sump tanks
  • Circulation pumps
  • Condenser
  • Heat exchanger

Experimental capabilities:

  • Absorption of CO2 from air-CO2 gas mixture using water
  • Desorption of CO2 from the solution into air
  • Determination of CO2 saturation point in water and time to reach saturation
  • Effect of CO2 compositions, air and water flow rate on efficiency
  • Effect of liquid temperature and air flow rate desorption efficiency
  • Hydrodynamics study of a packed column
  • Determination of loading and flooding points of the column

Gas Absorption Unit

Model No: BP200

Description:

This Gas Adsorbtion Unit is designed to demonstrate the working principles of gas phase adsorption.

This unit consists of:

  • Evaporator
  • Adsorption columns
  • Adsorbent – molecular sieve
  • Heating sleeves with insulation
  • Drying columns
  • Thermostat
  • Vacuum pump

Experimental capabilities:

  • Adsorption process for removal of hydrocarbon (n-hexane or cyclo-hexane) from carrier gas stream
  • Adsorption process for removal of n-hexane from hydrocarbon mixture
  • Plot of breakthrough curves
  • Effect of carrier gas flow rate on the separation process
  • Column regeneration

Gaseous Diffusion Coefficient Apparatus

Model No: BP10

Description:

This Gaseous Diffusion Coefficient Apparatus is designed to measure molecular diffusivity of gases.

This unit consists of:

  • Precision bore glass capillary tube to contain volatile liquid
  • Thermostatic bath with transparent sides
  • Horizontal glass tube for flow of bulk air
  • Air pump
  • Travelling microscope mounted on a scale

Experimental Capabilities:

  • Measurement of mass transfer rates and diffusion coefficients
  • Use of Fick’s Law to measure diffusion coefficients
  • Effect of temperature on mass transfer rates and diffusion coefficients

Gas-Solid Adsorbtion Column

Model No: BP204

Description:

This Gas-Solid Adsorption Column is designed to study the dynamic adsorption of gas mixtures containing gas CO2 and gas H2S.

This unit consists of:

  • Two different diameter adsorption columns
  • NaOH bubbler
  • Mass flow controller
  • CO2 and H2S analyzer

Experimental capabilities:

  • To study the efficiency of the adsorbents
  • To optimize the adsorption process by manipulating the flow rate, temperature and pressure
  • To study the adsorption process for different gas mixtures
  • To compare the adsorption process by using different diameter of adsorption column

Gas Absorption Unit

Model No: BP200

Description:

This Gas Adsorbtion Unit is designed to demonstrate the working principles of gas phase adsorption.

This unit consists of:

  • Evaporator
  • Adsorption columns
  • Adsorbent – molecular sieve
  • Heating sleeves with insulation
  • Drying columns
  • Thermostat
  • Vacuum pump

Experimental capabilities:

  • Adsorption process for removal of hydrocarbon (n-hexane or cyclo-hexane) from carrier gas stream
  • Adsorption process for removal of n-hexane from hydrocarbon mixture
  • Plot of breakthrough curves
  • Effect of carrier gas flow rate on the separation process
  • Column regeneration

Gas-Solid Adsorbtion Column

Model No: BP204

Description:

This Gas-Solid Adsorption Column is designed to study the dynamic adsorption of gas mixtures containing gas CO2 and gas H2S.

This unit consists of:

  • Two different diameter adsorption columns
  • NaOH bubbler
  • Mass flow controller
  • CO2 and H2S analyzer

Experimental capabilities:

  • To study the efficiency of the adsorbents
  • To optimize the adsorption process by manipulating the flow rate, temperature and pressure
  • To study the adsorption process for different gas mixtures
  • To compare the adsorption process by using different diameter of adsorption column

Liquid Diffusion Coefficient Apparatus

Model No: BP09

Description:

This Liquid Diffusion Coefficient Apparatus is designed to measure liquid diffusivity in an equimolar counter diffusion process.

This unit consists of:

  • Unique diffusion cell with a precise honeycomb
  • Diffusion vessel made of clear acrylic
  • Conductivity meter
  • Magnetic stirrer

Experimental capabilities:

  • Measurement of mass transfer rates and diffusion coefficients
  • Examine the effect of concentration
  • Carry out analysis of an unsteady state mass transfer process

Liquid Mixing Equipment

Model No:  FM103

Description:

This Liquid Mixing Equipment is designed for laboratory experiments on solid-liquid and liquid-liquid mixing.

This unit consists of:

  • Cylindrical mixing vessel made of Perspex
  • Mixer motor with variable speed control
  • Range of impellers such as a propeller, turbine and various flat blade paddles

Experimental capabilities:

  • Visualisation of mixing and flow patterns
  • Power and speed characteristics of different impellers
  • Mixing of solid/liquid suspensions or immiscible liquids
  • Study on mixer speed and torque limits

Name: Liquid-Liquid Extraction Unit (With Solvent Recovery)

Model No:  BP60

Description:

This Liquid-Liquid Extraction Unit is designed to demonstrate the principles and operation of liquid-liquid extraction and solvent recovery processes. The mobile unit consists of an extraction system and a solvent recovery system.

This unit consists of:

  • Extraction and distillation columns
  • Feed and solvent tanks
  • Extract and raffinate tanks
  • Reboiler
  • Distillate tank
  • Feed metering pumps
  • Condenser

Experimental capabilities:

  • Mass balance study
  • Effect of feed flow rates on extraction efficiency
  • Hydrodynamics of liquid-liquid systems
  • Effect of solvent to feed ratio on extraction efficiency
  • Effect of organic and aqueous phase as continuous phase
  • Determination of number of theoretical plates

Liquid-Liquid Extraction Unit (Without Solvent Recovery)

Model No:  BP61

Description:

This Liquid-Liquid Extraction Unit is designed for demonstration of liquid-liquid extraction.

This unit consists of:

  • Extraction column
  • Feed and solvent tanks
  • Extract and raffinate tanks
  • Feed metering pumps

Experimental capabilities:

  • Operation of a liquid-liquid extraction
  • Effect of feed flow rates on extraction efficiency
  • Effect of solvent to feed ratio on extraction efficiency
  • Effect of organic and aqueous phase as continuous phase
  • Determination of number of theoretical plates

Pressure Swing Adsorbtion Column System

Model No:  BP202-A

Description:

This Pressure Swing Adsorption Column System is designed to demonstrate the fundamental and working principles of pressure swing adsorption. Air separation is used as an example.

This unit consists of:

  • Adsorption columns
  • Adsorbents – zeolite and activated carbon, molecular sieve
  • Heating sleeves with insulation
  • Vacuum pump
  • Temperature, pressure and flow measurements
  • Oxygen concentration measurement

Experimental capabilities:

  • Operation of pressure swing adsorption process
  • Determination of adsorption bed capacity
  • Determination of saturation limit
  • Determination of adsorption isotherm equilibrium and profile characteristic
  • Effect of pressure and flow rate
  • Comparison of different adsorbent material and properties
  • Mass transfer study

Rotating Disc Liquid-Liquid Extraction Unit (Without Solvent Recovery)

Model No:  BP63

Description:

This Rotating Disc Liquid-Liquid Extraction Unit is designed for demonstration of liquid-liquid extraction using a rotating disc column.

This unit consists of:

  • Extraction column with rotating discs
  • Feed and solvent tanks
  • Feed pumps
  • Extract and raffinate tanks

Experimental capabilities:

  • Operation of a liquid-liquid extraction
  • Effect of feed flow rates on extraction efficiency
  • Effect of solvent to feed ratio on extraction efficiency
  • Effect of disc rotation speed on extraction efficiency
  • Determination of number of theoretical plates

Short Path Distillation System

Model No:  BP217

Description:

This Short Path Distillation System is designed for demonstration of separation process for thermal sensitive products. The short residence time and low evaporation temperature process is a great advantage for many high-molecular-weight organic compounds particularly in the fields of chemistry, pharmaceutical and food industry.

This unit consists of:

  • Short path evaporator made of borosilicate glass comes with heating jacket and stirrer drive
  • Feed funnel
  • Products and condensate vessels
  • Graduated cylinder
  • Vacuum system
  • Heating and cooling circulation systems

Experimental capabilities:

  • Determination of thermal separation efficiency
  • Effects of evaporator temperature, stirrer speed, mixture ratio and feed
    flow rate on separation efficiency
  • Mass balance analysis

Solid-Liquid Extraction Unit

Model No:  BP40

Description:

This Solid-Liquid Extraction Unit is designed to demonstrate the principles of extraction process whereby some components are selectively removed from solid using a suitable solvent.

This unit consists of:

  • Extraction vessel
  • Evaporator with electric heater
  • Packed column
  • Solvent condenser
  • Product cooler
  • Receiver vessel

Experimental capabilities:

  • Determination of extraction efficiency
  • Effects of solvent flow rate, contact time and solvent feed temperature on extraction efficiency
  • Batch and continuous extraction
  • Semi-continuous extraction using Soxhlet methods
  • Mass balance analysis

Solid-Liquid Extraction Unit

Model No:  BP41

Description:

This Solid Liquid Extraction Unit is designed for student demonstration on the extraction process whereby components can be selectively extracted from solid mixtures using a suitable solvent.

This unit consists of:

  • Rotating Extractor
  • 3 sets of solvent delivery system
  • Input Hopper

Experimental capabilities:

  • Demonstration of continuous multi-stage solid-liquid extraction operation
  • Demonstration of open (continuous) and closed (batch) loop percolation extraction
  • Comparison of one, two and three stage continuous processes
  • Effects of solvent flow rate, processing time and solvent feed temperature on the extraction efficiency
  • Process economics
  • Mass balance analysis

Solid-Liquid Extraction Unit

Model No:  BP102

Description:

This Solids Handling Study Equipment is designed to demonstrate the characteristics and behaviour of solid particles.

This unit consists of:

  • Sieve shaker with six sieves of various mesh size
  • Cylindrical hopper made of clear PVC
  • Horizontal cylinder made of clear PVC
  • Transparent V-cone mixing vessel
  • Stainless steel ball mill
  • Glass cyclone
  • Digital balance

Experimental capabilities:

  • Particle size distribution, sieving techniques, hopper discharge, bulk density, angle of repose, solids mixing and ball mill comminution
  • Study of cyclone operation for air pollution control

Spray Dryer

Model No: FD20

Description:

This Spray Dryer is designed for demonstration of rapid spray drying processes involving aqueous emulsions, solutions, suspensions and colloids. Spray dryers are generally used in the food industry to process fish extracts, heat sensitive materials, milk and egg products, cereals, plant and vegetable extracts, etc.

This unit consists of:

  • Atomizing mode: Two-fluid airflow spray nozzle
  • Drying glass chamber
  • Glass cyclone separator
  • Exhaust fan

Experimental capabilities:

  • Processing aqueous emulsions, solutions, suspensions and colloids
  • Downward co-current operation (a fine jet of the liquid is brought into contact with a hot air stream)
  • Incorporates manual jet de-blocking device

Tray Dryer

Model No: BP772

Description:

This Spray Dryer is designed for demonstration of rapid spray drying processes involving aqueous emulsions, solutions, suspensions and colloids. Spray dryers are generally used in the food industry to process fish extracts, heat sensitive materials, milk and egg products, cereals, plant and vegetable extracts, etc.

This unit consists of:

  • Axial flow fan with variable speed fan
  • Electrical heaters with variable power input and protected against over temperature
  • Drying chamber with transparent door
  • Rack of trays suspended from the arm of a digital balance
  • Instrumentations to measure air flow rate, humidity and temperature

Experimental capabilities:

  • Use of psychrometric charts for mass and energy balances
  • Demonstration of drying rate curve
  • Effect of temperature and air velocity on drying rate

Vapour Liquid Equilibrium Unit

Model No: BP16

Description:

This Vapour Liquid Equilibrium Unit is designed to investigate vapour and liquid equilibrium of a binary mixture at pressures up to 10 bar.

This unit consists of:

  • Stainless steel evaporator with electrical heater and liquid/vapour sampling ports
  • Condenser made of stainless steel coils
    Pressure and temperature sensors for both liquid and vapour phases
  • Pressure relief valve

Experimental capabilities:

  • Effect of initial composition on boiling temperature and vapour phase composition
  • Determination of minimum boiling point of binary mixture
  • Effect of addition of salts into mixtures

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