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Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

Bernoulli’s Theorem Demonstration Unit

Model No: FM24

Description:

The Bernoulli’s Theorem Demonstration unit is designed to demonstrate the principles of Bernoulli’s theorem.

This unit consists of:

  • A classical venturi test section made of clear acrylic for flow visualization
  • A pitot static tube which can be traversed across the centerline of the venturi section
  • A manometer bank with eight tubes for measuring the static pressure distribution along the converging test section and total pressure traversed along the centerline of the test section.

Experimental capabilities:

  • Demonstration of venturi as a flow measurement device
  • Determination of the venturi discharge coefficient

Cavitation Demonstration Unit

Model No: FM10

Description:

This Cavitation Demonstration Unit has been designed to demonstrate to students the phenomenon of cavitation.

This unit consists of:

  • Rectangular venturi section
  • Flow regulating valve
  • Pressure gauge
  • Vacuum gauge

Optional:

Smart Calibrator for:

  • Demonstration and observation of cavitation at different flow rates.
  • Measurement and interpretation of upstream and throat pressure at different flow rates.

Dead Weight Pressure Calibrator

Model No: FM44

Description:

This Dead Weight Pressure Calibrator is designed to demonstrate calibration of a Bourdon type pressure gauge.

This unit consists of:

  • A precision machined piston and cylinder assembly mounted on levelling screws
  • A Bourdon gauge for calibration
  • The weights (added to the upper end of the piston rod which is rotated to minimize friction effects)

Experimental capabilities:

  • Calibration of Bourdon type pressure gauge

Demonstration Pelton Turbine

Model No: FM41

Description:

This Demonstration Pelton Turbine unit provides a simple low cost introduction to turbine performance.

This unit consists of:

  • A miniature pelton wheel with spear valve arrangement mounted on a support frame, which is located on top of a hydraulic bench (Model: FM110)
  • A simple friction dynamometer (to absorb mechanical output from the turbine)

Experimental capabilities:

  • Determination of the operating characteristic of a Pelton turbine such as power, efficiency and torque at various speeds.

Flow Over Weirs

Model No: FM26

Description:

This Flow Over Weirs apparatus comes with two weir plates of different shapes, allowing familiarisation and comparison with weir theory. The unit is capable to demonstrate flow characteristic cover.

This unit consists of:

  • Weir plates
  • Rectangular notch
  • Vee notch

Experimental capabilities:

  • Demonstration of flow characteristic of weir:

I. Rectangular notch

II. Vee (V) notch

  • Determination of discharge coefficients of weir plates

Flow Visualisation Apparatus

Model No: FM22

Description:

This Flow Visualisation Apparatus is designed to provide flow visualization of various drag bodies.

This unit consists of:

Chamber complete with ink injection tank, flow sources and flow sinks

Experimental capabilities:

  • Demonstration of flow/path lines
  • Simulation of flow sources and flow sinks

During the experiment, ink is injected through a fine nozzle to the flow chamber.

  • Eight different drag bodies are provided, with which the influence of different bodies to the flow/path lines can be demonstrated
  • 4 sources holes and 4 sink holes are provided to allow simulation of flow sources and flow sinks according to potential field theory.

Free & Force Vortex

Model No: FM42

Description:

This Free & Force Vortex is designed to generate and measure free and forces vortices.

This unit consists of:

  • Clear acrylic cylinder
  • Interchangeable orifice
  • Combined calliper and depth scale

Experimental capabilities:

  • To study the difference between free and forced vortices.
  • To investigate the surface profile of a free vortex.
  • To investigate the surface profile and total head distribution of a forced vortex.
  • Observation of secondary flow in free vortex.

Gravimetric Hydraulic Bench

Model No: FM110-G

Description:

This Gravimetric Hydraulic Bench is designed for students to control water flow in a wide variety of laboratory experiments via gravimetric weighing system.

This unit consists of:

  • Sump tank with submersible pump
  • Gravimetric weighing system
  • Working surface

Hydraulic Bench

Model No: FM110

Description:

This Hydraulic Bench is designed to complement a wide range of accessories for experiments on the subjects of fluid mechanics. The unit consists of upper and lower mouldings mounted on a steel structure fitted with lockable wheels. The mouldings are made of fiberglass for lightweight and corrosion resistant features. An open channel and volumetric measuring tank are incorporated with the bench along with the means for mounting and connecting various accessories.

This unit consists of:

  • Rectangular venturi section
  • Flow regulating valve
  • Pressure gauge
  • Vacuum gauge

Experimental Capabilities:

  • Demonstration and observation of cavitation at different flow rates.
  • Measurement and interpretation of upstream and throat pressure at different flow rates.

 

Hydraulic Ram

Model No: FM39

Description:

This Hydraulic Ram comprises a cast iron base incorporating pulse and non-return valves and a supply reservoir on a stand which is fed by the Hydraulic Bench. An air vessel above the valve chamber smooth cyclic fluctuations from the ram delivery.

This unit consists of:

Cast iron base incorporating pulse and non-return valves and a supply reservoir

Experimental capabilities:

Establishing flow/pressure characteristic and determining efficiency of the hydraulic ram.

Hydrostatic Pressure

Model No: FM35

Description:

This Hydrostatic Pressure apparatus is designed to introduce the concept of centre of pressure of an object immersed in fluid.

This unit consists of:

  • Quadrant
  • Clear reservoir tank
  • Balance arm
  • Weight set

Experimental capabilities:

  • Measurement of the static thrust exerted by a fluid on a submerged surface.
  • Comparison of the magnitude and direction of the force with theory.

Impact of Jet Apparatus

Model No: FM31

Description:

This Impact of Jet Apparatus is designed for study on the force developed by a water jet impinging on different non-moving targets

This unit consists of:

  • A clear acrylic cylinder where water is fed through a nozzle and discharged vertically to strike the target
  • Three different target plates (supported on a stem which extends through the cover)
  • Flat plate
  • 120o cone
  • Hemispherical cup
  • A dead weight (applied on the upper end of the stem counter balance the force exerted by the water jet)

Experimental capabilities:

Measurement of the force exerted by a water jet upon targets of different shapes and comparison with the forces predicted by momentum theory

Laminar Flow Table

Model No: FM23

Description:

This Laminar Flow Table is designed to simulate ideal fluid flow and give clear visualization of the flow patterns created using water as the working fluid. This enables a comprehensive investigation into the principles of potential flow and allows modeling appropriate physical systems.

This unit consists of:

  • Two closely spaced sheets of laminated glass arranged horizontally on a glass fibre moulding
  • Inlet and discharge tank
  • Eight miniature tappings for sinks or sources

Experimental capabilities:

  • Ideal flow around immersed bodies
  • Ideal flow in channels and at boundaries
  • Ideal flow associated with sinks and sources
  • Use of streamlines to analyse two-dimensional flow
  • Modelling of two-dimensional systems

Liquid Mixing Equipment

Model No: FM103

Description:

This Liquid Mixing Equipment is a benchtop unit designed for visualization of solid/liquid and liquid-liquid mixing.

This unit consists of:

  • Stirrer
  • Different impellers
  • Baffles

Experimental capabilities:

  • Effect of different impellers on mixing process
  • Effect of baffles on mixing process

Metacentric Height

Model No: FM43

Description:

This Metacentric Height allows a thorough investigation of factors affecting the stability of a floating body.

This unit consists of:

Plastic rectangular floating pontoon complete with vertical and linear mass and linear scale

Experimental capabilities:

  • Determination of the centre of gravity of a pontoon (floating body).
  • Determination of the metacentric height and the metacentre of a pontoon.
  • Investigation of variation of metacentric height with angle of heel.

Orifice and Jet Flow Unit

Model No: FM25

Description:

This Orifice and Jet Flow Unit is designed to demonstrate measurement of orifice discharge and jet flow.

  • A constant head tank with a jet trajectory tracer
  • Orifices of different diameters (installed at the side, near the base of the tank)
  • A jet trajectory device allows the path followed by the jet to be ascertained

This unit consists of:

  • Adjustable head tank
  • Orifices with different diameters
  • Jet trajectory tracer

Experimental capabilities:

  • Determining velocity coefficient and discharge coefficient for a small orifice at a constant and variable head flow condition.
  • Comparing the measured jet trajectory with that predicted by theory

 

Orifice Discharge

Model No: FM12

Description:

This Orifice Discharge is designed to demonstrate the measurement of orifice discharge.

This unit consists of:

  • A cylindrical acrylic tank which has an orifice fitted at the base
  • A traverse assembly is provided to allow a pitot tube to be positioned anywhere in the jet
  • A wire is attached to the pitot tube which can traverse across the jet. (to accurately measure the jet diameter and the vena contract a diameter in order to determine the contraction coefficient)

Experimental Capabilities:

  • Determination of the contraction and velocity coefficients of different orifices
  • Calculation of the orifices discharge coefficient

Osborne Reynolds Demonstration

Model No: FM11

Description:

This Osborne Reynolds Demonstration is designed to reproduce the classic experiments by Professor Osborne Reynolds on visualization of fluid flow.

This unit consists of:

  • Transparent header tank
  • A flow visualization pipe
  • A dye injection system (installed on top the header tank so that flow pattern in the pipe can be visualized)

Experimental capabilities:

Visualization of the laminar, transitional, turbulent flow and velocity profile

Particle Drag Coefficient Apparatus

Model No: FM102

Description:

This Particle Drag Coefficient Apparatus is designed to introduce the fundamental characteristics of particle / fluid systems, in particular the relationship between drag coefficients of falling particles and Reynolds number.

This unit consists of:

  • Two vertical glass tubes which contain different liquids
  • Particles covering a range of sizes and densities

Experimental capabilities:

  • Effect of different liquids on drag coefficients
  • Effect of properties of particles on drag

Pipe Friction Apparatus

Model No: FM111

Description:

This Pipe Friction Apparatus is designed for students to measure pipe friction losses for laminar and turbulent flows.

This unit consists of:

  • Manometers
  • Water storage tank
  • Test pipe

Experimental capabilities:

  • Measurement of pressure loss for laminar and turbulent flow.
  • Determination of critical Reynolds number.
  • Head loss measurement using U-tube manometer.

Pipe Surge and Water Hammer Apparatus

Model No: FM04

Description:

This Pipe Surge and Water Hammer Apparatus is designed for experiments on the transient effects of pipe surge and water hammer as a result of gradual or instantaneous changes in fluid velocity.

This unit consists of:

  • Pipe surge test section
  • Water hammer test section
  • Head tank and Hydraulic Bench

Experimental capabilities:

  • To demonstrate pipe surge and water hammer phenomena
  • To study the oscillatory characteristics of the surge shaft
  • To study the frictional head loss between reservoir and surge shaft
  • To compare the measured water hammer pressure profiles with theory
  • To determine the velocity of sound in pipe

Pitot Static Tube

Model No: FM50

Description:

This Pitot Static Tube is designed for students to determine the change in flow speed within a tube cross-sectional.

This unit consists of:

  • Pipe section
  • Manometer
  • Pitot static tube and scale

Experimental capabilities:

Static and dynamic pressure measurement.

Determination of velocity profile in a tube flow.

Demonstration of the characteristic of a pitot static tube.

Pressure Gauge Calibration Bench

Model No: FM01

Description:

This Pressure Gauge Calibration Bench is a complete laboratory bench for pressure gauge calibration.

Three different types of pressure gauges are provided:

  • Diaphragm
  • Bellows
  • Bourdon

This unit consists of:

  • Bellows pressure gauge
  • Membrane pressure gauge
  • Bourdon pressure gauge
  • Digital pressure calibrator
  • Pressure regulator
  • Pressure release valve

Experimental capabilities:

  • Pressure measurement with various pressure gauges
  • Pressure gauges calibration
  • Determination of pressure gauges error
  • Calibration of pressure gauges

Pressure Measurement Bench

Model No: FM01B

Description:

This Pressure Measurement Bench is a complete laboratory bench for test and calibration of different types of pressure measuring elements.

This unit consists of:

  • Pressure gauge
  • Vacuum gauge
  • Differential pressure gauge
  • U-tube manometer
  • Single tube manometer
  • Inclined tube manometer
  • Digital pressure calibrator

Pressure/Vacuum pump and tanks are also provided

Experimental capabilities:

  • Pressure measurement comparison by manometer and Bourdon gauges
  • Error determination for gauges
  • Pressure gauges calibration

Properties of Fluids and Hydrostatics Bench

Model No: FM02

Description:

This Properties of Fluids and Hydrostatics Bench is a self contained and mobile bench equipped with all necessary apparatus for a comprehensive range of experiments on the properties and basic principles of fluids.

This unit consists of:

  • Water manometer
  • Oil manometer
  • Bourdon gauge
  • Aneroid barometer
  • Thermometer
  • Hydrometer
  • Hygrometer
  • Vernier hook gauge
  • Capillary attraction plates
  • Capillary tubes
  • Capillary viscometer
  • Specific gravity bottle

Basic Principle of Fluids

  • Archimedes’ apparatus
  • Pascal’s apparatus
  • Dead weight pressure tester
  • Hydrostatic apparatus
  • Metacentric height apparatus

 Experimental capabilities:

  • Measurements of density, specific gravity, viscosity, pressure and humidity
  • Function and use of hydrometer
  • Demonstration of fluid upthrust (Pascal’s Law)
  • Capillarity
  • Determination of center of pressure and metacentric height

Serial/Parallel Pump Test Rig

Model No: FM07A

Description:

This Serial/Parallel Pump Test Rig is designed to demonstrate to students the operating characteristic of centrifugal pump in single configuration, series configuration & parallel configuration. Basic instruments are included to monitor the pump speed, pump head and flow rate.

This unit consists of:

  • 2 units of centrifugal pumps
  • 2 units of centrifugal pumps
  • Rotameter
  • Suction and delivery pressure gauge

Experimental capabilities:

  • Evaluation of inherent pump speed
  • Evaluation of pump characteristic curves

Venturi Meter

Model No: FM40

Description:

This Venturi Meter is designed for experiments on the usage of a venturi. The venturi test piece has a circular cross section and is accurately machined from clear acrylic material with pressure measurement tappings at the converging/diverging sections and throat.

This unit consists of:

  • Pressure gauge
  • Vacuum gauge
  • Differential pressure gauge
  • U-tube manometer
  • Single tube manometer
  • Inclined tube manometer
  • Pressure calibrator
  • Pressure/Vacuum pump and tanks are also provided.

Experimental capabilities:

  • Pressure measurement comparison by manometer and bourdon gauges
  • Error determination for gauges
  • Pressure gauges calibration

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