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Flow in Pipes

Energy Losses in Bend and Fittings

Model No: FM34


This Energy Losses in Bend and Fittings is designed for investigation of energy losses in pipe bends and fittings, including valves. This will enable students to appreciate energy losses associated with different devices.

This unit consists of:

  • 45° & 90° elbow
  • Bend
  • Sudden contraction & Sudden expansion
  • Gate valve
  • Manometer

Experimental capabilities:

  • Measurement of losses in devices as related to flow rate
  • Calculation of loss coefficients as related to velocity head
  • Comparison of pressure drop across each devices

Flowmeter Measurement Apparatus

Model No: FM101


This Flowmeter Measurement Apparatus is designed to introduce students to the operating characteristic of various types of flowmeters.

This unit consists of:

  • A rotameter
  • A venturi
  • An orifice meter

Experimental capabilities:

  • Apply Bernoulli equation for incompressible fluids.
  • Determine flow coefficients of venturi and orifice meter.
  • Establish the relationship between flow and differential pressure/fluid velocity for venturi meter and orifice plate.

Fluid Friction Measurement Apparatus

Model No: FM100


This Fluid Friction Measurement Apparatus is designed for students to study the fluid friction head losses of an incompressible fluid flow.

This unit consists of:

  • Smooth bore pipes of various diameters
  • An artificially roughened pipe
  • 90° bend, elbow and T
  • 45° elbow and Y
  • Sudden enlargement and contraction
  • Ball, gate and globe valve
  • Inline strainer
  • Venturi made of clear acrylic
  • Orifice plate made of clear acrylic
  • Pitot static tube section made of clear acrylic

Experimental capabilities:

  • Friction losses.
  • Laminar to turbulent flow regimes on smooth bore pipe of various diameters and an artificially roughened pipe.

Losses In Pipes and Fittings Apparatus

Model No: FM36


This Losses In Pipes and Fittings Apparatus is designed for students to energy losses in pipes and fittings including valves.

Experimental capabilities:

  • Determination of pressure drop across various pipes and fittings at differing flow rates.
  • Estimation of Loss Coefficient (K) for various pipes, pipe, pipe fittings and valve settings.
  • Flow rate/diameter relationship determination for fluid flow in pipes.
  • ‘Friction Factor’ determination for fluid flow in smooth pipes.

Pipe Network Apparatus

Model No: FM06


This Pipe Network Apparatus is designed for students to measure flows and pressure drops in a wide range of pipe network configurations using water as the fluid.

This unit consists of:

  • Different diameter of test pipes
  • Digital manometer
  • U-tube manometer

Experimental capabilities:

  • Calibration of system components – head loss vs. discharge
  • Characteristics of serial and parallel pipe networks
  • Application of doubling pipes








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